when to apply second coat of stain. However, the stain isn't fully cured at this point and may be vulnerable to physical or chemical damage. Superior wood stain saves time, energy and provides a great value. After application, wood stain may be dry to the touch within 30 minutes to two hours. If a second coat is required, wait 4 hours between applications. How Long Should you Wait Before Applying the Next Coat of Polyurethane on Hardwood Floors? If you use water-based polyurethane, you only have to wait between 2 to 4 hours before applying the next coat. How Long To Let Stain Dry Before Second Coat. It is more of a blue than a gray. Apply using a foam brush, bristle brush, paint pad applicator, or a lint-free cloth such as an old T-shirt. Wait an hour before applying a second coat of standard wood stain. If the wood is really dry and is sucking up the stain, and second coat can be applied immediately (wet on wet). With each coat of stain applied the color gets richer and darker (which is exactly what we are going for). When can I apply a second coat of stain?. When you are applying stain over a finished wood, you'll need at least two coats of paint to cover the . After the first coat had dried and cured, you can apply two or more additional coats to the surface. Apply sealer according to the directions from the manufacturer. When to apply second coat wood stain? Apply a second coat of stain after the first has dried fully. Work with the grain, and avoid applying too much polyurethane to avoid raising the grain. • The test is to rub a small section with fine steel wool or a green Scotchbrite pad. You can apply an additional coat of stain after 24 hours if you want a darker wood color, especially if the first coat takes longer to dry. The waiting time can increase depending on the temperature and humidity. For best results allow stain to dry at least 1 hour then apply Varathane Polyurethane. Allow it to penetrate for 5-15 minutes, then wipe away the excess with a cloth. As you stain each area, remove excess stain by wiping with a clean cloth. Applying a Maintenance Coat of TWP. Where necessary, a second coat can be applied after a light buffing with fine steel wool and wiping with a tack cloth. Sprayed paint applies thinly and evenly, which makes it dry to the touch in as little as 30 minutes and ready for another coat in as little as one hour—even for a glossy paint. When using Minwax oil-based stains, let the stain dry 4-6 hours before applying polyurethane, polycrylic, or any other top coat. Use a natural-bristle brush for oil stains and a synthetic-bristle brush for latex stains. This time is pushed forward if there is a heavy application, high humidity or low temperatures. Yes you cannot apply now but you can apply a light coat after a light cleaning 6-12 months later. Coat soft, porous woods such as pine or alder with Minwax Pre-Stain Wood Conditioner by applying it with a brush or cloth. Restoring a wood surface means bringing it back to a like-new appearance from a neglected state or deciding to switch from one stain type to another. After this, let the stain dry for about 24 hours (up to 48 hours if you're working in a super humid. Apply one coat of stain to all railings. PressurePros Registered Joined May 5, 2007 5,097 Posts #3 · Aug 16, 2010. You can apply a second coat of stain after 24 hours. Step 6: Allow to Dry and Apply Second Coat. How many coats of stain should I apply?. If you apply a second, unnecessary coat of stain to wood that is already adequately covered, you risk creating a tacky surface that is prone to early peeling because the second coat is not penetrating the wood surface, but simply laying on top of the first coat of stain. Apply first coat evenly, working in one direction. Allow the pre-stain to dry for 30 minutes before applying stain, but no longer than 2 hours. You will either have to sand it or apply another coat of . How to Stain Wood Stairs Treads without Sanding. Step 4 - Apply a second coat of stain Most woodworking stains are relatively fast-drying, so wipe away the excess stain to prevent further sanding later on. The IPE is 20 years old and in moderately . General Finishes recommends 6-8 hours of dry . Optional, for additional luster or sheen a clear protective finish can be applied. Marty drjinx Original Author 10 years ago. TIP: You can apply a single coat of Pro-Etch stain over Artist Grade to highlight, darken or color tone shift. How Long to Wait Between Coats of Polyurethane on Hardwood. Allow the first coat to dry thoroughly before adding the second one. If the deck has been properly cleaned, it should absorb the first of stain well in to the wood. Allow the stain to dry for a full 8 hours or overnight before neutralizing the stain. If the color isn't dark enough use a darker stain or if needed supplement the. Only one coat of stain is required. Apply a second coat if you want a darker look. You cannot apply stain, paint ,varnish or glue over Seal-Once products. If a darker, or deeper color is desired, allow the first coat of stain to dry for 24 hours , then apply a second coat of stain in the same manner as the first. You should never apply a second coat of any oil stain. To darken the color, apply a second coat after 2-4 hours (time dependent on color). Generally, a deck gets ready for normal use after 24 to 48 hours. Lacquer stains in woodworking work too fast. Make sure first application is dry before applying second coat of stain. It's because applying stain moisturizes the wood surface. Can I apply a second coat of varathane stain? A second coat is not recommended. Sanding with a steel-wool substitute between coats of stain is useful for two reasons. How to Stain, Seal, and Finish Wood: Tutorial From a Real DIYer!. Instead, apply a thin layer of oil stain on the wood surface and wipe off excess using a clean rag. Softwoods will generally require more stain because it will absorb more profoundly into the pores. Solid: Apply another solid finish stain; semi-transparent stain is you are effectively applying a second coat to that overlapped area, . This usually happens under railings . This should be done 20-120 minutes after the first coat is applied. If it feels tacky to the touch (a little sticky and not wet) then you can apply the second coat. 3 coats of stain and that floor would be super dark. 70*F/20*C before adding a second coat (optional) and before adding topcoat. This will ensure the stain penetrates into the surface completely. Generally speaking, there are three situations where you may want to apply a second coat of stain: when the first coat is too light, . Defy Stain Tips for Wet on Wet Application. However, you must wait for the first coat to dry (typically about 2 hours) and apply the second coat within 4 hours of applying the first coat. Allow the stain to dry thoroughly. Apply three or four coats of wipe-on poly, straight from the can, and you should be all set. Only then should you apply a second coat, and this is an option for those hoping to achieve a darker finish or working on badly weathered material. How long do you wait before applying a second coat of stain? For a deeper color and sheen, wait one hour and apply a second coat. Water-based stain is the only stain that requires sanding between every coat except the. And again, be sure you don’t apply the coats too thickly. Once its dry, it could build a sheen, and could peel. Learn all about how to sell a fur coat. Apply the gel stain with a foam brush or pad, then wipe the excess away after 30 seconds. Apply a second coat of stain after the first has dried fully. Glazes and gel stains usually contain a higher ratio of pigment. Tip: To reduce bristle loss during the blending process, periodically tug on the bristles with a rag or shop towel. Add a second coat if you'd like the color to soak in a bit more. Adding additional coats of stain days after the previous. As they have faded a bit from the initial color. If you apply a second, unnecessary coat of stain to wood that is already adequately covered, you risk creating a tacky surface that is prone to early peeling . Removal of all excess material is essential to ensure proper dry time and proper adhesion of the topcoat. Usually, a good time frame is anywhere . Wait 8 hours for the second coat to completely dry. Apply the second coat in the opposite direction to the first coat. Repeat Steps 1-4 with a second coat of sealant. Avoid an unwanted shiny appearance and peeling issues by only applying as much Deft Extreme Deck Stain as the wood can absorb. If you intend to apply more than one coat of stain to your floor, you must note that the longer you leave the stain on the floor, the darker the final product will appear. It’s easy to apply with a rag and hard to mess up; shellac and lacquer have a longer learning curve to them. This will usually produce a darker coloring, but it adds a step to the process . This will help remove loose bristles so the strands do not fall off and stick to the product. When Can I Apply a Second Coat of Oil-based Stain? You can apply a second coat of oil stain two or more hours from the first coat. When to Apply Second Coat of Stain on Deck. Don’t Leave hinges, handles, knobs or pulls on a piece. Sweep away dust before applying stain. Minwax instructions say a second coat can be applied 4-6 hours after first coat. After completing the railings, go back and apply a second thin coat while the stain is still wet. The second coat of stain provides a darker hue. Considering this, how long should stain dry between coats? 1 coat. Furthermore, when can I apply a second coat of stain? For best results, avoid staining at midday or in direct sunlight. A second coat of stain may be applied after the first coat has dried to achieve a darker . With any stain, a deeper shade can be achieved by applying a second coat of One-step finishes that include polyurethane topcoat should be applied in very thin coats, using a natural-bristle brush for oil-based products, or a synthetic bristle brush for water-based products. Apply it directly to the fiberglass surface. Adding a second coat requires some precision in the time that elapses between the first and the second. On the other hand on a damp day when the air temperature is below 50º F it may be impossible to apply more than one coat per day. In warm, dry conditions the surface may be dry to the touch in as little as one hour. Scuff and wipe clean before applying the second coat of paint using sandpaper on imperfections. How to Stain Wood Like a Pro: The Ultimate Staining Guide. But with a clear or semi-transparent wood stain, a second coat will just sit on the surface of the first coat. How to Apply Exterior Stain. Polyurethane can be applied after the stain is all dried up. He discusses differences wood discolor. After cleaning, use penetrates, the second coat adds over apply Cabot Gold in cracks or. It takes a least one-week to totally cure, but it is dry to the touch in 3-4 hours. But the end result will be worth the exercise in patience. You can apply the next coat in as little as 4 hours if you are using fast-drying, oil-based polyurethane. How soon can you recoat polyurethane? Recoat within 2 hours. You can mix 2 or more stains together to make DIY custom stains. On porous and pressure-treated woods two coats of Defy Extreme Stain can be applied. Once your stain has dried as per manufactures directions a second coat can be applied if you want a darker look, repeat step 3 & 4 for additional coats until desired look is. 1440 South State Hwy 121 Suite #3 Lewisville, TX 75067 Office: 972-434-2028 Fax: 972-221-3237 Toll Free: 1-888-STAIN-4U. How can I get a "high" gloss finish? You can apply 3-5 coats of the Benchmark by Therma-Tru topcoat to achieve a "high" gloss finish. Once the stain is dry do not apply a second coat. You can even dip the object into stain or pour the stain onto the wood and spread it around. Some people have reported success using multicoats of TWP oil based stain, but that manufacturer doesn't recommend it either. Applying gel stain is a bit different than liquid stain. Allow the sealer to cure with no traffic for a couple days, and then wearing socks only, apply the wax and allow to dry overnight. You may need to wait for longer for gel stains—about six to eight hours before adding a second coat. Should I apply a second coat of stain? It is important to wipe off the stain thoroughly and consistently (in the direction of the grain) to get an evenly stained surface. All Interior and Exterior Surfaces - Concrete Stain - Applying Second Coat (different color) - I had my concrete porch stained with a water-based concrete stain last week at the same time my house was painted and the color didn't turn out like I expected. And remember, if you ever have questions about an exterior stain project, the . Isn’t it great? Of course, it is. Different types of roofs and the coatings made for them. To limit the possibility of streaking, apply the first coat East to West and the second coat North to South. So, if you apply a second (unnecessary) coat of deck stain to a wood staining project that is already adequately covered, you risk creating a tacky surface that is prone to early peeling because the second coat is not penetrating the wood surface. After you apply the Conditioner, apply the stain within two hours. Step #4: Allow Drying and Repeat Application. If you prefer a darker color, repeat Steps 2 and 3 for a second coat. It takes 2 hours for the stain to be touched; hence, an application of a second coat applies at that time. This will usually produce a darker coloring, but it adds a step to the process and slows . Wood maintenance is simply cleaning and. second coat of stain For a deeper color and sheen, wait one hour and apply a second coat. Then rub on some wax if you like. For that, first strip off all of the paint, then apply the stain. It will leave the wooden floor look new again. A second coat is not recommended. Tips for painting a second coat include waiting for the first coat to dry completely before adding more paint. Also question is, when can I apply second coat of stain? For a deeper color and sheen, wait one hour and apply a second coat. In my experience a second coat of stain has a minor effect, but not really significant. This will usually produce a darker coloring, but it adds a step to the process and slows production. This means you can apply the first coating on the wood, dry, sand, and again apply the second coat within 1-1. Skip the second coat, you won't need it. In addition, it adds some "tooth" to the surface that helps the next coat of stain adhere and absorb better and more uniformly. If you're going to spend the money to buy a good brush, keep it clean and it will reward you with better finishes and will last longer. If the deck is in an area of lower temperature and higher humidity, you may have to wait longer. "It might start peeling when the sun hits it, making it look like your deck got a. Remove hinges, handles, knobs or pulls before you start staining or finishing. I do recommend waiting at least 24 hours in between coats, though. In fact, for highly absorbent woods, you can then apply a second coat, wait, and wipe away the excess again. Take care to protect the floor from any drips. Apply another seal coat of epoxy using an 1/8" nap foam roller, working to fill in the craters. wiping, or apply additional coats of stain. The stain color your select is an incredibly personal decision. In fact, most woodworkers will tell you that they typically use 2 coats of stain most of the time, and 3 coats in very rare cases. Test any stain you are considering on an inconspicuous spot to ensure that the color of the stain—in conjunction with the natural color of the wood—produces the color you desire. Allow the Stain to Dry and Sit up to 24 Hours. This allows the first coat to settle into the wood before. The stain will have sealed the wood preventing the second coat of penetrating stain from penetrating the wood. You do not need to do this step for asphalt, previously painted or vertical surfaces. What is Wet On Wet Stain Application. Always feel the surface with your hands to check if t is dry before adding a coat of stain. Minwax Gel Stain – Wood & Metal Stain. Apply the second coat of stain and wipe off all excess just like you did with the first coat (refer to steps #3 and #4). The key is to use a very fine mist and apply the coat very, very . Can I apply a second coat of stain the next day? Yes. Before applying any sealer, always double-check the recommendations and instructions on the back of the can! Staining Pine. August 2011: The initial application of Arborcoat on our log cabin restoration project is nearly complete. I am using oil based stain and when I apply a second coat it is reactivating the first coat. Applying a stain and a protective top coat like polyurethane is usually Two coats applied with the Purdy brush began to obscure the wood . Work Quickly Once you work on one section of the deck, the other portions will be drying out. Best to wait for a minimum of 20 minutes between coats and do not allow the first coat to dry before a second coat application. You may need to wait for longer for gel stains—about six to eight hours . Stain the concrete and apply one coat of sealer. These are the steps to follow with a brown stain coming through the primer. Can you apply a second coat of stain after 24 hours? It is important to wipe off the stain thoroughly and consistently (in the direction of the grain) to get an evenly stained surface. That means you can apply stain and two topcoats in a single day without sacrificing varnish clarity. After the first coat is applied, apply a light second coat to the top of the railings only. Wipe the surface with tack cloth to remove dust before. Add a wood conditioner to the surface. Wipe down the stain with a clean rag in the direction of the stain of the wood. Warm stains work great to slightly warm up cooler toned stains. I've read it's not a good idea to apply another coat of stain because the first coat of stain has basically sealed the wood and won't allow for a second coat of stain to absorb into the wood. Fast drying formula dries in 1 hour and uses nano pigments to offer superior color and coverage. If you apply another coat of wood stain after a week, it will not adhere to the wood properly. A second coat on deck needs to be applied at least four hours after the first coat has been applied. Check out the answers in our handy guide to wood stains and more. How to Acid Stain Concrete. When doing old and new concrete sections together, stain it all and then do additional coats on the lighter sections to help blend them in with the darker sections. The remaining 2 gallons are somewhat heavy with pigment solids (due to undermixing during application I think). The basic rule for getting good results with any stain is to apply a wet coat and wipe off the excess before it dries. However, when using oil-based polyurethane, you might wait for 10 to 24 hours. And again, be sure you don't apply the coats too thickly. For highly absorbent woods, you can then apply a second coat, wait, and wipe away the excess again. It usually takes 1 to 6 hours for a standard wood stain to become dry to touch. Wood finishing products may change the color of any metal hardware. How to apply wood stain over wood stain. Can I layer seal coat (50/50 alcohol) inbetween . As you'll be starting from the wall of the house, you'll need to begin by "cutting in. For bare concrete, thin your first coat with one pint of water per gallon of stain. If a light recoat does not fix the problem you can also try using a mix of wood cleaner and a pressure washer to see if you can wash the spots out without harming the stain. I actually like how it turned out, but I. Learn about some of the best types of deck coatings. The general rule of thumb is to apply only as much deck stain as the wood can absorb. After waiting 24 hours to dry, I put on a second coat of stain, this time American Walnut, to give a slight browner color. On new decks, it is important to only apply one coat of oil-based deck finishes. Simply so, does stain get darker as it dries? Be sure to wait until the stain is dry before you make any decisions. Do light sanding prior to application to improve adhesion of the new coat to the existing one. You can apply a second coat of oil stain two or more hours from the first coat. Finish the surface with PolyShades within two hours of application of the Minwax conditioner. Once you are within the time frame recommended for a second coat try applying stain in an inconspicuous spot to see if it fixes the rain damage. Once you are done, let the stain dry. A good rule of thumb is to lightly touch the portion that has been stained. At this point, you can add a second coat of stain, if necessary. If you want to stain wood darker color, apply multiple layers of the stain and let the previous coat dry fully before the subsequent ones. The best way to get a feel for this type of stain and application is to practice applying it on a scrap piece of wood before you begin your project. Allow to dry at least 2 hours before applying the second coat. If available, you may also use a roller to first apply the stain, then work it into the wood with your brush. Learn More Wood Staining Tips Buy Wood Stain Online Deck Staining Advice. This will usually produce a darker coloring , but it adds a step to the process and slows production. You can sand between each coat. Let stain dry completely (usually 24 hours). How many coats of stain can I apply? What temperature does it need to be to stain wood? How long . In any case, the product label should always indicate how long for stain to dry before the second coat. Some final tips: Only apply 1 coat to new wood. Hi Venessa, You should wipe the stain off right after you apply it. If the stains remain, it's best to apply a second coat of primer and let it dry for the entire day. It is advisable to do a second coat of stain to attain a darker shade of color. But the required time can differ for different types of stains and some other factors influencing the drying time. Repeat Step 2 for any wood benches or other vertical structures. 5) A second coat can be applied after two hours. Most stains only require a couple of hours before you can apply either a second coat of stain or polyurethane . What Happens If You Don't Sand Between Coats of. Whether sprayed, rolled, or brushed, the mode of paint delivery affects drying time between coats. Allow the epoxy to cure hard, sand entire application flat, and re-coat to finish. … Leave a dampness of stain on the wood that dries to a darker coloring. We are filing away our stain application process notes and footage and will be watching the weathering. When you've finished painting the stain on, let it sit for 5-15 minutes to soak in, then grab your rag and gently wipe the piece down. How to Stain Wood and Finish your Wood Project. For example, wood surfaces with knots and other imperfections may absorb the stain and leave dry spots. I would wait at least 8 hours between coats but the directions on the . I’ve read it’s not a good idea to apply another coat of stain because the first coat of stain has basically sealed the wood and won’t allow for a second coat of stain to absorb into the wood. Mahogany is a deep red, but in some places the wood looks lighter than that. Only one coat of transparent stains can be applied. A polyurethane topcoat provides long-term protection to lock in your stain. Step 9 Allow the stain to dry for one to two hours before applying second coat. Applying two coats of stain to your hardwood floors will result in darker tones; however, this may be necessary to obtain the stain tones you wish for. Yes, Apply the second coat within 15 minutes of the first coat. If that is the case Cabot's doesn't recommend putting a second coat on. Let dry for one hour before applying a second coat or a finishing top coat like . How soon can I apply a second coat of stain? How Long to Wait Before Second Coat of Stain. For the second coat of stain, repeat the same procedure that was done in the first coat. How would I decide whether to do a second coat of IPE stain over a first? The first coat was applied a few days ago. I’m planning on putting on the second coat as soon as possible where there’s at least a 2 day dry period after. Brush application (natural bristle) is the preferred method because it works the oil-based stain into the wood fibers and cells more effectively. Is one coat of solid stain enough?. How to Apply Gel Stain and Gel Topcoat to Raw Wood. Brush it on, going with the grain of the wood, and cover the entire surface once again. The time between coats can vary depending on the specific product, but most advise waiting at least 4 hours before applying a second coat. However, it almost appears like the 2nd coat *removed* some of the 1st coat of the stain in some places. #2 · Aug 16, 2010 Usually stains , even if spec'd 1 coat can have a second coat applied while it is still wet. " Three" could mean ONE coat stain, and two top coats. How do i apply a second coat of polyurethane? Looking for an answer to the question: How do i apply a second coat of polyurethane? On this page, we have gathered for you the most accurate and comprehensive information that will fully answer the question: How do i apply a second coat of polyurethane? If you do have to sand between coats of polyurethane on floors because you didn't get to the. In this example, we used two coats of stain and allowed a bit of the original cherry finish to come through. Have GF product and application questions? Need expert finishing advice? Join our Facebook Group, General Finishes University at https://generalfinishes. Share tips, tricks, and photos of your wood stain projects in the comments below. presents the final installment of his four part series of Partial Log Restoration. With most coating epoxies, if you are trying to build up to your desired thickness, it is recommended to pour your second coat once the first coat is tacky to the touch. • Apply a second coat of stain after the first has dried fully. Once complete, the stain should take roughly 24 hours to fully dry. You need to sand the surface you're working on before applying gel stain. Add a second coat if you’d like the color to soak in a bit more. Do not apply 2 coats to brand new wood. A second coat, therefore, ensures that the wood is well protected, thus enhancing its longevity. This factor must be accounted for when you apply the stain. Let first coat dry and apply second coat of sealer. As a result, any finish you use on top will experience adhesion problems and peel off. So, if you apply a second (unnecessary) coat of deck stain to a wood staining project that is already adequately covered, you risk creating a . You may need to wait overnight. If one section dries and is then overlapped, you are effectively applying a second coat to that overlapped area, and this will lead to blotchy finish; If the stain pools during application, you are applying too much at once; cut back. It even allows the first coat more time to dry and settle before you apply the second coat. Chances are on siding, you'll be fine even after its dry. This wait time can be longer if the weather is cold, humid, or lacking the needed airflow. Typically, stain takes about 24 to 48 hours to fully cure. Apply a very thin coat of polyurethane with a fine brush, foam pad, or cloth. Therefore, if you use a second coat, you will be risking creating a tacky surface prone to early . As far as a second coat you have nothing to lose except some stain and time. Apply it and if gets closer to the desired color that's great. The main consideration to remember is if the old bead is not fully cured you do not want to break the skin it has formed. A second coat of stain may be applied after the first coat has dried to achieve a darker color. You can choose to use a water-based or oil-based stain. No, applying a second coat of stain a week later is a bad idea. But don’t wait too long as this may compromise with the proper adhesion of the second coat. A second coat of stain won't darken it much more unless you really rubbed it on thin the first time. If you want a darker, richer tone, apply a second coat according to label directions. See here for tips on new wood: . It won't adhere to the wood well enough to stay there. How Do You Sand Between Coats of Stain? · Step 1: Grab some 220 or 240 grit sandpaper · Step 2: Start Sanding · Step 3: Apply the second layer of stain. For a deeper color and sheen, wait one hour and apply a second coat. A stain isn't a finish because it requires varnish or you have to apply a second coat of finish to protect the wood. Apply stain only at the proper temperature. Step 7: Apply Polyurethane Finish. Applying the second coat of stain to darken the concrete up a little more. Reduce streaks with sanding technique and by adding conditioner to the paint. 9 Tips for Expert Deck Staining Though applying stain might seem like a straightforward job, there is a reason there is such a massive difference between the work of a professional and that of an amateur. If additional protective coats are needed, sand lightly between coats and wipe clean prior to allowing additional coat. Step 4: Dry and Apply Second Coat (optional) Let the stain dry per the product's directions. After the first coat of stain/varnish is dry according to the time recommended on the container, you may or may not want to apply a second coat of stain. Here's a simple and easy tutorial for how to stain wood. At room temperature, it takes 15 minutes to dry. Use a lint free cloth or brush to apply it making sure to wipe up excess liquid as you go. The remaining 2 gallons were sealed in the 5 gallon container. Apply your second coat of stain within 10-60 minutes of the first coat. A second coat won't really penetrate and tend to leave a residue on the surface which will cause adhesion problems with the finish. Allow it to dry for five to 15 minutes, and then use a dry cloth to remove the excess. Prep the wood the same way as you would for any other stain. To darken the color, apply additional coats of Minwax® Gel Stain repeating directions for application of first coat. If it's build with pressure treated lumber then a bit of weathering is desirable but a . How long should stain dry before second coat? For a deeper color and sheen, wait one hour and apply a second coat. To remove excess oil stain from wood, simply apply another coat of stain, allow it to soak in for a few minutes, then wipe it off. Just make sure that you apply the second coat the same way you applied the first one. If it doesn't absorb then just wipe it off. First, it evens out the finish from the previous coat. If stain dries before you can wipe it off, you may end up with blotchy spots. how to stain furniture that is already stained. When can I apply a second coat of stain?. The wood has absorbed most of what it can take with the first coat. Neutralize the stain using Ammonia and water once the stain has dried for at least 8 hours.